Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Yellow-footed green pigeon

Yellow-footed green pigeon (Hariyal) to remain Maharashtra state bird

As the State Wildlife Board on Monday turned down Bombay Natural History Society’s (BNHS) proposal to declare forest owlet as the new state bird of Maharashtra, the yellow-footed green pigeon (Hariyal in Marathi) will continue to remain the state bird.

State officials said that, Forest owlet is found in few places in Satpura range in Maharashtra including Nandurbar, Jalgaon and Amravati, while the state bird yellow-footed green pigeon is found in all the states of India and everywhere Maharashtra, and also in Pakistan and Afghanisatan.

The BNHS had urged the state Forest Department to declare the critically-endangered and rare forest owlet, which is unique and endemic only to Maharashtra should be declared as the state bird.

“But the State Wildlife Board, in its meeting decided that the green pigeon will remain the state bird. Since the forest owlet is very rarely found, it was decided that it can not be a state bird,” Dr S K Khetarpal, Principal Chief Conservator of Forest (Wildlife) told PTI.

While BNHS scientists had argued that 19 Indian states have their state birds, which are rare, unique and a threatened specie, like the white-winged wood duck is the state bird of Assam, blood pheasant of Sikkim, black-necked crane of Jammu and Kashmir.

However, BNHS claimed that there was no discussion on the issue in the meeting today, “as the decision on the issue was taken already as it was clear from the details of agenda of the meeting.” BNHS scientists said that they would continue with their demand for the forest owlet to be made the state bird.

Tuesday, September 13, 2011

White Rumped Shama

White Rumped Shama

Kingdom  :     Animalia
Phylum     :     Chordata
Class       :     Aves
Order       :     Passeriformes
Family     :     Muscicapidae
Species     :     C. malabaricus
Zoological name :     Copsychus malabaricus
Found In     Corbett National Park, Royal Chitwan National Park, Sundarbans National Park and Bandhavgarh National Park in India.

Physical appearance
White Rumped Shama is a famous song bird. It is medium in size. It is approximately 27 cm long and weighs around 32 grams. It has a round head, long legs and slender bills. The male is shiny dark in colour. Its head, neck and back are black bullish in colour, wings are dull black in colour, legs are pink in colour and the belly is pale orange in colour. It has along tail and broad wings. They have white feathers on the rump. Females are smaller than the males. Females are brown grayish in colour, with the white coloured belly. They have black bills.

Presence in India : White Rumped Shama is found in almost all the parts of India but are they are mostly found in Northern India. It is also spotted in the Corbett National Park, Royal Chitwan National Park, Sunderbans National Park and Bandhavgarh National Park in India.

Habitat : White Rumped Shama prefers dense jungles and lowlands up to 1500 m.

Diet : White Rumped Shama is a insectivore. It mainly feeds on insects like grasshoppers, termites and caterpillars. They also favour small intvertebrates, maggots, berries and fruits.

Reproduction : Incubation lasts for 12 –15 days. Males are generally aggressive during the breeding season. One egg is laid per day. The egg is white in colour with the reddish brown spots. Both males and females take care of the young ones. Young ones are born blind and featherless. They open their eyes in six days. Their feathers are completely developed in eleven days. They start flying in 14 days. They are sexually mature in 3- 4 months. Their nests are cup shaped, made of mud and leaves. Young ones feed on insects and earthworms.

Conservation status : Least concern. White Rumped Shama is present in large numbers.

Lifespan : White Rumped Shama generally lives for 10- 15 years.

Wednesday, March 23, 2011

Bangladeshi Bird Bulbuls

Order: Passeriformes.
Family: Pycnonotidae
Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red or orange vents, cheeks, throat or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests.There are 130 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Bangladesh.


Red-whiskered Bulbul


Angladesh is full of natural gifts. The gifts are: flower, birds, forest, river, climate, fruit, jute, tea, fertile clay etc. All of them, bird is my topic. I am writing about a little bird and its description. Its name is Sparrow. It is a common bird. Every body has enough idea about it and it is a known bird to all. It is brown and white in color but its head and eye side are black. It is not a forest bird.
Sparrows make its nest at the corner on the ceiling by straw, rope, dry branch etc. It likes to live  with people. Its food item is normal. Anybody cannot catch for cage it. The male Sparrow is more  beautiful then the female Sparrow. When they want to fall in love or choose another Sparrow then the  female Sparrow try to show extra and special attraction for the male Sparrow. They are cunning bird.  If they could sing that will be more beautiful side. Some naughty boys catch it and fry it to eat.  At night the bad boys catch it. We should protect them from bad persons.

House Sparrow

Thursday, February 24, 2011


Piranga ludoviciana
Bird Spotting: The male western tangier has a red head with bright yellow wing shoulders and belly. Wings are black with white and yellow wing bar markings. The female bird is a yellowish green on top with gray wings. The rump is yellowish.

Habitat: The western tangier makes its home in open coniferous and mixed forests.
Nesting: Three to five speckled bluish-green eggs are laid in a frail, shallow saucer nest constructed of small roots, weeds and bark. Nests can be found lashed to a branch of a tree, usually at a low elevation.
Bird Bite: The bright red pigment called rhodoxanthin is rare in birds and does not come naturally to the western tangier. Eating insects that have ingested plants with this pigment gives the western tangier its distinctive red face.

There were traditionally about 240 species of tanagers, but the taxonomic treatment of this family's members is currently in a state of flux. As more of these birds are studied using modern molecular techniques it is expected that some genera may be relocated elsewhere. Already species in the genera Euphonia and Chlorophonia, which were once considered part of the tanager family, are now treated as members of Fringillidae, in their own subfamily (Euphoniinae). Likewise the genera Piranga (which includes the Scarlet Tanager, Summer Tanager, and Western Tanager), Chlorothraupis, and Habia appear to be members of the Cardinal family, and have been reassigned to that family by the AOU.


Wednesday, February 2, 2011


Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Sturnidae. The name "Sturnidae" comes from the Latin word for starling, sturnus. Starlings occur naturally in the Old World, from Europe, Asia and Africa, to northern Australia and the islands of the tropical Pacific. Several European and Asian species have been introduced to these areas as well as North America, Hawaii and New Zealand, where they generally compete for habitat with native birds and are considered to be invasive species. The starling species familiar to most people in Europe and North America is the European Starling, and throughout much of Asia and the Pacific the Common Myna is indeed common.

Starlings have diverse and complex vocalizations, and have been known to embed sounds from their surroundings into their own calls, including car alarms, and human speech patterns. The birds can recognize particular individuals by their calls, and are currently the subject of research into the evolution of human language.

The starlings are medium sized passerines. The shortest-bodied species is Kenrick's Starling (Poeoptera kenricki), at 15 centimetres (6 in), but the lightest-weight species is Abbott's Starling (Poeoptera femoralis), at 34 grams (1.2 oz). The largest starlings are the mynas of the genus Mino, especially the Yellow-faced(Mino dumontii) and Long-tailed Mynas (Mino kreffti). These mynas can exceed 30 centimetres (1 ft) and weigh over 225 grams (8 oz). Several species of starling exhibit sexual dimorphism in size, with the males being larger than the females.There is less sexual dimorphism in plumage however, with only 25 species showing such differences between the sexes. The plumage of the starlings is often brightly coloured due to iridescence; this colour is derived from the structure of the feathers, not from any pigment. Some species of Asian starling have crests or erectile feathers on the crest. Other ornamentation includes elongated tail feathers and brightly coloured bare areas on the face. These colours can be derived from pigments, or, as in the Bali Starling, structural colour, caused by light scattering off parallel collagen fibres. The irises of many species are red and yellow, although those of younger birds are much darker.

Distribution Habitat and Movements
The starlings inhabit a wide range of habitats from the Arctic Circle to the Equator, in fact the only habitat they do not typically occupy is the driest sandy deserts. The family is naturally absent from the Americas and from large parts of Australia, but is present over the majority of Europe, Africa and Asia. The genus Aplonishas also spread widely across the islands of the Pacific reaching Polynesia, Melanesia and Micronesia (in addition one species in the genus Mino has reached the Solomon Islands, it is also a species of this genus that is the only starling found in northern Australia.Asian species are most common in evergreen forests; 39 species found in Asia are predominately forest birds as opposed to 24 found in more open or human modified environments. In contrast to this African species are more likely to be found in open woodlands and savannah; 32 species are open area specialists compared to 13 true forest species. The high diversity of species found in Asia and Africa is not matched by Europe, which has one widespread (and very common) species and two more restricted species. The European Starling is both highly widespread and extre mely catholic in its habitat, occupying most types of open habitat. Like many other starling species it has also adapted readily to human-modified habitat, including farmland, orchards, plantations and urban areas.Some species of starling are migratory, either entirely, like the Shelley's Starling, which breeds in Ethiopia and northern Somalia and migrates to Kenya and southern Somalia, or the White-shouldered Starling, which is migratory in part of its range but is resident in others.

The starlings are generally a highly social family. Most species associate in flocks of varying sizes throughoutthe year, these flocks may include other species of starlings and sometimes species from other families. This sociality is particularly evident in the their roosting behaviour; in the non-breeding season some roosts can number in the thousands of birds.

Diet and feeding
The diets of the starlings are usually dominated by fruits and insects. Many species are important dispersers of seeds in Asia and Africa, for example white sandlewood, Indian Banyan. In addition to trees they are also important dispersers of parasitic mistletoes. In South Africa the Red-winged Starling is an important disperser of the introduced Acacia cyclops. Starlings have been observed feeding on fermenting over-ripe fruit, which led to the speculation that they might become intoxicated by the alcohol. Laboratory experiments on European Starlings have found that they have disposal enzymes that allow them to break down alcohol very quickly. In addition to consuming fruits, many starlings will also consume nectar. The extent to which starlings are important pollinators is unknown, but at least some are, such as the Slender-billed Starling of alpine East Africa, which pollinates giant lobelias.


Sunday, January 30, 2011


There are a number of Passeriformes (perching birds) called "warblers". They are not particularly closely related, but share some characteristics, such as being fairly small, vocal and insectivorous. They are mostly brownish or dull greenish in color. They tend to be more easily heard than seen. Identification can be difficult and may be made on the basis of song alone. To English-speaking Europeans

The grass-warblers are small passerine birds belonging to the genus Locustella. Formerly placed in the paraphyletic "Old World warbler" assemblage, they are now considered the northernmost representatives of a largely Gondwanan family, the Megaluridae. These are rather drab brownish "warblers" usually associated with fairly open grassland, shrubs or marshes. Some are streaked, others plain, all are difficult to view. They are insectivorous. The most characteristic feature of this group is that the song of several species is a mechanical insect-like reeling which gives rise to the group's scientific name. Species breeding in temperate regions are strongly migratory.


Shot this birds on a nearly hours of a winter day. This bird is very approachable and friendly, in this instance it allowed me to go as close as 5 and click these pics.

Mockingbirds are a group of New World passerine birds from the Mimidae family. They are best known for the habit of some species mimicking the songs of other birds and the sounds of insects and amphibians, often loudly and in rapid succession. There are about 17 species in three genera. These do not appear to form a monophyletic lineage: Mimus and Nesomimus are quite closely related; their closest living relatives appear to be some thrashers, such as the Sage Thrasher. Melanotis is more distinct; it seems to represent a very ancient basal lineage of Mimidae.

When the survey voyage of HMS Beagle visited the Galápagos Islands in September to October 1835, the naturalist Charles Darwin noticed that the mockingbirds Mimus thenca differed from island to island, and were closely allied in appearance to mockingbirds on the South American mainland. Nearly a year later when writing up his notes on the return voyage he speculated that this, together with what he had been told about Galápagos tortoises, could undermine the doctrine of stability of species. This was his first recorded expression of his doubts about species being immutable, which led to him being convinced about the transmutation of species and hence evolution. It was only after the ship returned to England that he found out about the better known Darwin's Finches.


Wednesday, January 26, 2011


Hummingbirds are birds that comprise the family Trochilidae. They are among the smallest of birds, and include the smallest extant bird species, the Bee Hummingbirds. They can hover in mid-air by rapidly flapping their wings 12–90 times per second (depending on the species). They can also fly backwards, and are the only group of birds able to do so. Their English name derives from the characteristic hum made by their rapid wing beats. They can fly at speeds exceeding 15 m/s (54 km/h, 34 mi/h).

Most hummingbirds have bills that are long and straight or nearly so, but in some species the bill shape is adapted for specialized feeding. Thornbills have short, sharp bills adapted for feeding from flowers with short corollas and piercing the bases of longer ones. The Sicklebills' extremely decurved bills are adapted to extracting nectar from the curved corollas of flowers in the family Gesneriaceae. The bill of the Fiery-tailed Awlbill has an upturned tip, as in the Avocets. The male Tooth-billed Hummingbird has barracuda-like spikes at the tip of its long, straight bill.

Co-evolution with ornithophilous flowers
Hummingbirds are specialized nectarivores and are tied to the ornithophilous flowers they feed upon. Some species, especially those with unusual bill shapes such as the Sword-billed Hummingbird and the sicklebills, are co-evolved with a small number of flower species.

Many plants pollinated by hummingbirds produce flowers in shades of red, orange, and bright pink, though the birds will take nectar from flowers of many colors. Hummingbirds can see wavelengths into the near-ultraviolet, but their flowers do not reflect these wavelengths as many insect-pollinated flowers do. This narrow color spectrum may render hummingbird-pollinated flowers relatively inconspicuous to most insects, thereby reducing nectar robbing. Hummingbird-pollinated flowers also produce relatively weak nectar (averaging 25% sugars w/w) containing high concentrations of sucrose, whereas insect-pollinated flowers typically produce more concentrated nectars dominated by fructose and glucose.

Aerodynamics of flight
Hummingbird flight has been studied intensively from an aerodynamic perspective using wind tunnels and high-speed video cameras.Writing in Nature, the biomechanist Douglas Warrick and coworkers studied the Rufous Hummingbird, Selasphorus rufus, in a wind tunnel using particle image velocimetry techniques and investigated the lift generated on the bird's upstroke and downstroke. They concluded that their subjects produced 75% of their weight support during the downstroke and 25% during the upstroke. Many earlier studies had assumed (implicitly or explicitly) that lift was generated equally during the two phases of the wingbeat cycle, as is the case of insects of a similar size. This finding shows that hummingbirds' hovering is similar to, but distinct from, that of hovering insects such as the hawk moths.

The Giant Hummingbird's wings beat at 8–10 beats per second, the wings of medium-sized hummingbirds beat about 20–25 beats per second and the smallest can reach 100 beats per second during courtship displays.

As far as is known, male hummingbirds do not take part in nesting. Most species build a cup-shaped nest on the branch of a tree or shrub, though a few tropical species normally attach their nests to leaves. The nest varies in size relative to species, from smaller than half of a walnut shell to several centimeters in diameter. In many hummingbird species, spider silk is used to bind the nest material together and secure the structure to its support. The unique properties of silk allow the nest to expand with the growing young. Two white eggs are laid, which, despite being the smallest of all bird eggs, are in fact large relative to the hummingbird's adult size. Incubation lasts 14 to 23 days, depending on species, ambient temperature, and female attentiveness to the nest. Their mother feeds the nestlings on small arthropods and nectar by inserting her bill into the open mouth of a nestling and regurgitating the food into its crop.


Hummingbird among and Crocosmia
Hummingbird is attacking a much bigger bird.